April 2019 additions to NERDB

April 2019 additions to NERDB

NERDB is the New and emerging risks database. This bibliographic database is an initiative of Nicole Palmen and Annet Lenderink with the support of Modernet and is currently powered by Obvibase.

More information on this database on the NERDB page

On the website we will publish from this month on regular updates on new disease – exposure combinations we added to the database. Currently, we have 197 entries. Ordered by year in which the abstract is published

20093unknown year6

Last new entries

Ali et al. 2019 Acute Respiratory Failure from Cement Exposure: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.
R I Med J (2013). 2019 Feb 1;102(1):55-57.

Cement is widely used in construction. Acute exposures with immediate sequelae have been infrequently described. This case report describes a man who developed multifocal pneumonitis with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDs) and respiratory failure one day after cement dust exposure. Chromium, cobalt, and nickel components in cement may cause pulmonary tissue irritation. Sand and gravel in cement may cause direct abrasive injury. Inhalation may cause direct thermal injury through an exothermic reaction. The silicon dioxide component has been shown to cause pulmonary injury through cytokine-mediated inflammation. Cement batches for smaller-scale construction jobs are often mixed onsite increasing exposure risk. Implementation of personal protective equipment has been shown to reduce respiratory symptoms among cement workers, underscoring the need for occupational health standards and further research. [Full article available].

Costa-Silva et al. 2018 Mycobacterium abscessus infection in a spa worker.Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat. 2018 Sep;27(3):159-160.

Mycobacterium abscessus (M. abscessus) is a non-tuberculous mycobacterium widely present in the natural environment and is now being increasingly identified as a cause of human disease. However, it can cause skin and soft tissue infection following trauma or surgery. We report a case of a skin ulcer associated with M. abscessus in a spa worker. Frequently, contamination with atypical mycobacteria occurs through tap water. However, in most outbreaks, the infection source remains unknown. For early diagnosis, it is important to perform biopsies and mycobacterium cultures. No specific treatment for skin infection with M. abscessus has been established; it depends on the immune status of the host and the extent of disease. Although it is rare, non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection should be part of the differential diagnosis of cutaneous ulcers, especially on trauma-prone areas. [Full article available]

Neghab et al. 2018 Ventilatory disorders associated with occupational inhalation exposure to nitrogen trihydride (ammonia) Ind Health. 2018 Sep; 56(5): 427–435.

Respiratory effects of long term exposure to low levels of ammonia have not been thoroughly investigated. In this cross sectional study, 124 male subjects (67 high exposed and 57 low exposed), occupationally exposed to low levels of ammonia and 120 male referent individuals were investigated. Airborne concentrations of ammonia were measured and subjects underwent spirometry tests prior to and at end of their daily work shift. Average concentrations of ammonia in the breathing zones of the high and low exposed employees were found to be 1.35 ± 4.59 and 0.29 ± 0.31 ppm, respectively. Additionally, mean baseline values of some parameters of pulmonary function such as Vital Capacity (VC) and Forced Expiratory Volume in the first second (FEV1) in the high exposed group were significantly lower than those of referent individuals. Similarly, significant reversible cross shift decrements were noted in FEV1, VC and Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) of exposed employees. These findings indicate that exposure to low levels of ammonia is associated with significant chronic irreversible and acute reversible decrements in the lungs’ functional capacity.

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