December 2020 additions to NERDB

December 2020 additions to NERDB

NERDB is the New and emerging risks database. This bibliographic database is an initiative of Nicole Palmen and Annet Lenderink with the support of Modernet and is currently powered by Airtable.

More information on this database on the NERDB page

On the website we will publish from this month on regular updates on new disease – exposure combinations we added to the database. Currently, we have 277 entries. Ordered by year in which the abstract is published

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Last new entries

Tokar, O. M., Batig, V. M., Ostafiichuk, M. O., Ishkov, M. O., & Sheremet, M. I. (2020). Investigation of the Effect of Formaldehyde on the Condition of Periodontal Tissues of Woodworking Industry WorkersJournal of medicine and life13(2), 225–228.

Chainsaw of woodworker
Picture of Franz W. via Pixabay

The high prevalence of periodontal diseases in workers with professional contact with unfavorable factors of the production environment is an unresolved problem of dentistry. This study aimed to investigate the harmful effects of formaldehyde on periodontal tissues in woodworkers who have long-term contact with formaldehyde in their professional activities. Sixty-nine men with occupational exposure to formaldehyde were examined to study the effect of formaldehyde on the human periodontal tissues, looking particularly at signs of the periodontal tissues’ inflammatory process using a series of periodontal indices. The study results showed that the condition of periodontal tissues was statistically significantly worse in woodworkers who have long-term contact with formaldehyde in their professional activities. However, the hygiene status was not significantly different in the main group and the comparison group. Thus, we concluded that working under conditions of constant exposure to formaldehyde has a negative effect on the condition of periodontal tissues.

Schubert, S., Geier, J., Skudlik, C., Reich, A., Hansen, A., Buhl, T., … & Brans, R. (2020). Relevance of contact sensitizations in occupational dermatitis patients with special focus on patch testing of workplace materialsContact Dermatitis.

The background of the study is that studies on patch testing with workplace materials and evaluation of current occupational relevance of positive patch test (PT) reactions are scarce in patients with occupational dermatitis (OD).

The authors’ objectives were to identify frequent sensitizations with occupational relevance and to determine the value of patch testing with workplace materials in OD patients. To study this they analyzed the results and clinical data of 654 patients with suspected OD patch tested between 2013 and 2017.

They found that occupational allergic contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 113 (17.3%) patients. Mechanics had the widest range of occupational sensitizations. Sensitization to epoxy resin was rated occupationally relevant in almost all handicraft trades. Among positive PT reactions to workplace products, those to water-based metalworking fluids and leave-on cosmetic products were most frequent. Despite frequent testing,
protective gloves only rarely elicited positive reactions. Preservatives and rubber compounds were most
frequently identified as currently occupationally relevant.

The authors conclude that rubber allergy is occupationally relevant especially in healthcare workers and cleaners. Generally, preservatives including formaldehyde-releasers are important allergens in OD patients. Leave-on cosmetic products must not be forgotten as allergen sources. Patch testing both, workplace materials and standardized test preparations, has a complementary value and is beneficial for the diagnostic
work-up of OD patients.

Kahn, L. G., Philippat, C., Nakayama, S. F., Slama, R., & Trasande, L. (2020). Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: implications for human healthThe Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology8(8), 703-718.

Since reports published in 2015 and 2016 identified 15 probable exposure-outcome associations, there has been an increase in studies in humans of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and a deepened understanding of their effects on human health. In this Series paper, we have reviewed subsequent additions to the literature and identified new exposure-outcome associations with substantial human evidence. Evidence is particularly strong for relations between perfluoroalkyl substances and child and adult obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, gestational diabetes, reduced birth weight, reduced semen quality, polycystic ovarian syndrome, endometriosis, and breast cancer. Evidence also exists for relations between bisphenols and adult diabetes, reduced semen quality, and polycystic ovarian syndrome; phthalates and prematurity, reduced anogenital distance in boys, childhood obesity, and impaired glucose tolerance; organophosphate pesticides and reduced semen quality; and occupational exposure to pesticides and prostate cancer. Greater evidence has accumulated than was previously identified for cognitive deficits and attention-deficit disorder in children following prenatal exposure to bisphenol A, organophosphate pesticides, and polybrominated flame retardants. Although systematic evaluation is needed of the probability and strength of these exposure-outcome relations, the growing evidence supports urgent action to reduce exposure to EDCs.

IIversen, I. B., Mohr, M. S., Vestergaard, J. M., Stokholm, Z. A., & Kolstad, H. A. (2020). Occupational Styrene Exposure and Risk of Encephalopathy and Unspecified Dementia: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study of Workers of the Reinforced Plastics IndustryAmerican Journal of Epidemiology.

Exposure to industrial solvents has been associated with encephalopathy. Styrene is a neurotoxic industrial solvent, and we investigated the long-term risk of encephalopathy and unspecified dementia following styrene exposure.

The authors followed 72,465 workers in the reinforced plastics industry in Denmark (1977–2011) and identified incident cases of encephalopathy (n = 228) and unspecified dementia (n = 565) in national registers. They modeled individual styrene exposure levels from information on occupation, measurements of workplace styrene levels, product, process, and years of employment. Adjusted analyses were performed using a discrete survival function.

A positive trend for encephalopathy (P < 0.01) and a negative trend for unspecified dementia (P = 0.03) were seen with cumulative styrene exposure accrued during the recent period of up to 15 years. For unspecified dementia and the combination of unspecified dementia and encephalopathy, a positive trend was indicated when applying a 30-year exposure lag (P = 0.13 and P = 0.07).

The risk patterns that are seen following recent exposure probably reflect diagnostic criteria for encephalopathy requiring recent industrial solvent exposure and referral bias rather than an association with styrene exposure, while the increasing risk observed for unspecified dementia and the combination of encephalopathy and unspecified dementia following distant exposure indicates an increased risk of dementia following styrene exposure with a long latency period.



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