February 2021 additions to NERDB

February 2021 additions to NERDB

NERDB is the New and emerging risks database. This bibliographic database is an initiative of Nicole Palmen and Annet Lenderink with the support of Modernet and is currently powered by Airtable.

More information on this database on the NERDB page

On the website, we will publish regular updates on new disease – exposure combinations we added to the database. Currently, we have 284 entries. Ordered by year in which the abstract is published

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Last new entries:

Pardo, L.A., Beane Freeman, L.E., Lerro, C.C. et al. Pesticide exposure and risk of aggressive prostate cancer among private pesticide applicatorsEnviron Health 19, 30 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12940-020-00583-0

Spraying pesticides in agriculture
Photo by Franck Barske from Pixabay

Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers among men in developed countries; however, little is known about modifiable risk factors. Some studies have implicated organochlorine and organophosphate insecticides as risk factors (particularly the organodithioate class) and risk of clinically significant PCa subtypes. However, few studies have evaluated other pesticides. We used data from the Agricultural Health Study, a large prospective cohort of pesticide applicators in North Carolina and Iowa, to extend our previous work and evaluate 39 additional pesticides and aggressive PCa.

The authors used Cox proportional hazards models, with age as the timescale, to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between ever use of individual pesticides and 883 cases of aggressive PCa (distant stage, poorly differentiated grade, Gleason score ≥ 7, or fatal prostate cancer) diagnosed between 1993 and 2015. All models adjusted for birth year, state, family history of PCa, race, and smoking status. We conducted exposure-response analyses for pesticides with reported lifetime years of use.

There was an increased aggressive PCa risk among ever users of the organodithioate insecticide dimethoate (n = 54 exposed cases, HR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.04, 1.80) compared to never users. We observed an inverse association between aggressive PCa and the herbicide triclopyr (n = 35 exposed cases, HR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.48, 0.95), with the strongest inverse association for those reporting durations of use above the median (≥ 4 years; n = 13 exposed cases, HR=0.44, 95% CI=0.26, 0.77). The authors conclude that few additional pesticides were associated with prostate cancer risk after evaluation of extended data from this large cohort of private pesticide applicators.

Berg, Z. K., Rodriguez, B., Davis, J., Katz, A. R., Cooney, R. V., & Masaki, K. (2019). Association between occupational exposure to pesticides and cardiovascular disease incidence: The Kuakini Honolulu heart programJournal of the American Heart Association8(19), e012569.

Previously, Kuakini Honolulu Heart Program researchers reported that occupational exposure to pesticides was significantly associated with total mortality. The current study examines occupational exposure to pesticides in relation to incident cardiovascular disease, defined as coronary heart disease or cerebrovascular accident.

With the Occupational Safety Health Administration exposure scale used as an estimate of exposure, statistical analyses were performed on a cohort of 7557 Japanese‐American men from the Kuakini Honolulu Heart Program. Hazard ratios for cardiovascular disease incidence were calculated for various levels of pesticide exposure using Cox proportional hazards models.

In the first 10 years of follow-up, a positive association was observed between age‐adjusted cardiovascular disease incidence and high levels of pesticide exposure (hazard ratio=1.46, 95% CI=1.10‐1.95, P=0.009). This relationship remained significant after adjustment for other cardiovascular disease risk factors (hazard ratio=1.42, 95% CI=1.05‐1.92, P=0.021). No significant association for coronary heart disease or cerebrovascular accident incidence with pesticide exposure was observed when examined separately, possibly due to a smaller number of events.

These findings suggest that occupational exposure to pesticides may play a role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. The results are novel, as the association between occupational exposure to pesticides and cardiovascular disease incidence has not been examined previously in this unique cohort.

Yan, Y., Wang, C., Zheng, Z. et al. Renal injury following long-term exposure to carbon disulfide: analysis of a case seriesBMC Nephrol 20, 377 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12882-019-1553-1

To investigate the clinico-pathological characteristics of renal damage caused by long-term exposure to carbon disulfide (CS2) in nine patients. All the patients underwent ultrasound-guided renal biopsy. All specimens were examined by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Samples from one patient were further analyzed using transmission electron microscopy.

Similar pathological changes were observed in all patients, but the degrees of lesions were different. All cases had moderate to severe nodular mesangial hyperplasia; among these, type “Kimmelstiel-Wilson lesion” (K-W nodule for short) was observed in four cases, type “K – W nodule” refer to nodular hyperplasia of mesangial membrane like letter K or W.

Four cases had proliferative extra capillary glomerulonephritis (GN), while there were no concomitant changes in one patient. Besides, six cases had diffuse basement membrane thickening, focal segmental sclerosis, or bulbar sclerosis; two cases had diffuse glomerular sclerosis, and one case had focal segmental capillary hyperplasia.

Moreover, all patients had renal tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis with less to moderate chronic inflammatory cell infiltration, as well as renal arteriosclerosis. IHC showed that the depositions of IgA, IgM, C3d, C4d, C1q and Fib were not specific; while IgG, type III collagen, Fibronectin, Amyloid A, Igκ, Igλ, HBsAg and HBcAg were all negative.

The authors conclude that diffuse nodular mesangial hyperplasia/sclerosing glomerular nephropathy is characterized by nodular mesangial hyperplasia with type “K-W nodules” formation. They speculate this is a special pathological manifestation of renal damage caused by carbon disulfide (CS2).

Cocco, P., Satta, G., Meloni, F., Pilia, I., Ahmed, F., Becker, N., … & Benavente, Y. (2021). Occupational exposure to organic dust and risk of lymphoma subtypes in the EPILYMPH case–control studyScandinavian journal of work, environment & health47(1), 42.

This study aimed to estimate the risk of lymphoma and its major subtypes in relation to occupational exposure to specific organic dust. The authors explored the association in 1853 cases and 1997 controls who participated in the EpiLymph case-control study, conducted in six European countries in 1998–2004. Based on expert assessment of lifetime occupational exposures, we calculated the risk of the major lymphoma subtypes associated with exposure to six specific organic dust types, namely, flour, hardwood, softwood, natural textile, synthetic textile, and leather, and two generic (any types) groups: wood and textile dust types. The risk was predicted with unconditional regression modeling, adjusted by age, gender, study center, and education.

They observed a 2.1-fold increase in the risk of follicular lymphoma associated with ever exposure to leather dust [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01–4.20]. After excluding subjects who ever worked on a farm or had ever been exposed to solvents, the risk of B-cell lymphoma was elevated in relation to ever exposure to leather dust [odd ratio (OR) 2.2, 95% CI 1.00–4.78], but it was not supported by increasing trends with the exposure metrics. The risk of Hodgkin lymphoma was elevated (OR 2.0, 95% CI 0.95–4.30) for exposure to textile dust, with consistent upward trends by cumulative exposure and three independent exposure metrics combined (P=0.023, and P=0.0068, respectively). Future, larger studies might provide further insights into the nature of the association we observed between exposure to textile dust and risk of Hodgkin lymphoma.

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