January 2024 additions to NERDB

January 2024 additions to NERDB

NERDB is the New and emerging risks database. This bibliographic database is an initiative of Nicole Palmen and Annet Lenderink with the support of Modernet and is currently powered by Airtable.

More information on this database is on the NERDB page

We will publish regular updates on new disease-exposure combinations we added to the database on the website. Currently, we have 404 entries. Ordered by the year in which the abstract is published

19771201011
19881201110
19911201210
19953201313
19971201419
19992201527
20001201621
20021201735
20052201830
20061201952
20071202052
20085202128
20093202237
unknown year6202330

New entries:

Psychedelic drugs and mushrooms – picture by Pixabay

Sallmén M, Burstyn I, Uuksulainen S, Koskinen A, Hublin C, Sainio M. Parkinson’s disease and occupational exposure to organic solvents in Finland: a nationwide case-control study. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2023 Oct 22:4125. doi: 10.5271/sjweh.4125. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 37865923.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the association between Parkinson’s disease (PD) and occupational exposure to organic solvents generally and chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHC) in particular.

Methods: We assembled a Finland-wide case-control study for birth years 1930-1950 by identifying incident PD cases from the register of Reimbursement of Medical Costs and drawing two controls per case using incidence density sampling from the Population Information System, matched on sex, birth year, and residency in Finland in 1980-2014. Occupation and socioeconomic status (SES) were identified from national censuses. We assessed cumulative occupational exposures via FINJEM job-exposure matrix. Smoking was based on occupation-specific prevalence by sex from national surveys. We estimated confounder-adjusted PD incidence rate ratios (IRR) via logistic regression and evaluated their sensitivity to errors in FINJEM through probabilistic bias analysis (PBA).

Results: Among ever-employed, we identified 17 187 cases (16.0% potentially exposed to CHC) and 35 738 matched controls. Cases were more likely to not smoke and belong to higher SES. Cumulative exposure (CE) to CHC (per 100 ppm-years, 5-year lag) was associated with adjusted IRR 1.235 (95% confidence interval 0.986-1.547), with stronger associations among women and among persons who had more census records. Sensitivity analyses did not reveal notable associations, but stronger effects were seen in the younger birth cohort (1940-1950). PBA produced notably weaker associations, yielding a median IRR 1.097 (95% simulation interval 0.920-1.291) for CHC.

Conclusion: Our findings imply that PD is unlikely to be related to typical occupational solvent exposure in Finland, but excess risk cannot be ruled out in some highly exposed occupations.

Andersson L, Hedbrant A, Bryngelsson IL, Vihlborg P, Särndahl E, Westberg H. Silica Exposure and Cardiovascular, Cerebrovascular, and Respiratory Morbidity in a Cohort of Male Swedish Iron Foundry Workers. J Occup Environ Med. 2023 Sep 1;65(9):731-739. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0000000000002890. Epub 2023 Jun 9. PMID: 37311079; PMCID: PMC10487371.

Objective: We present quantitative exposure-response data on silica exposure in male Swedish iron foundry workers for cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and respiratory morbidity.

Methods: This research is a cohort study of 2063 male Swedish iron foundry workers. From the Swedish National Patient Registers, data on morbidity incidence were retrieved. A historical measurement database of 1667 respirable silica exposure measurements from 10 Swedish iron foundries was used to calculate the cumulative exposure dose for each worker.

Results: Increased morbidity risk for the whole group of foundry workers was determined for ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchitis, and pneumonia. In addition, an increased risk for COPD at cumulative silica exposures ranging from 0.11 to 0.84 mg/m 3 years is presented.

Conclusions: The study presents a significantly increased COPD risk at cumulative silica exposures below the Swedish occupational exposure limit.

Videira, N. B., Nair, V., Paquet, V., & Calhoun, D. (2023). The changing outlook of psychedelic drugs: The importance of risk assessment and occupational exposure limitsJournal of Applied Toxicology, 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1002/jat.4533

Serotonergic psychedelics, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin, dimethyltryptamine (DMT), and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT), are currently being investigated for the treatment of psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. Clinical trials with psilocybin and LSD have shown improvement in emotional and psychological scores.

Although these drugs are reported to be safe in a controlled environment (such as clinical trials), exposure to low doses of these drugs can result in psychedelic effects, and therefore, occupational safety is an important consideration to prevent adverse effects in the workplace from low daily exposure.

This article will discuss the factors involved in the derivation of occupational exposure limits (OELs) and risk assessment of these psychedelic drugs. To support the OEL derivations of psychedelic drugs, information regarding their mechanism of action, adverse effect profiles, pharmacokinetics, clinical effects, and nonclinical toxicity were considered.

Additionally, psilocybin and LSD, which are the most extensively researched psychedelic substances, are employed as illustrative examples in case studies. The OELs derived for psilocybin and for LSD are 0.05 and 0.002 μg/m3, respectively, which indicates that these are highly hazardous compounds, and it is important to take into account suitable safety measures and risk-management strategies in order to minimize workplace exposure.

Rossides M, Mogensen H, Kampitsi CE, Talbäck M, Wiebert P, Tettamanti G, Feychting M. Parental occupational exposure to metals and risk of cancer in the offspring: A register-based case-control study from Sweden. Eur J Cancer. 2023 Sep;191:113243. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2023.113243. Epub 2023 Jul 17. PMID: 37562074.

Background: Cancer risks in the offspring of mothers and fathers exposed to metals are unknown. We estimated the relative risks of childhood cancer, overall and by type, associated with parental occupational exposure to arsenic, cadmium, chromium, nickel, and lead.

Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study (1960-2015) of children born in Sweden aged 0-19 years diagnosed with cancer (National Cancer Register) matched 25:1 to controls on birth year and sex. We obtained parental occupational data around their birth from censuses and a nationwide register and identified exposure to each metal (yes/no, or higher/lower/no exposure) using the Swedish job-exposure matrix (SWEJEM). Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated separately for maternal and paternal exposures using conditional logistic regression.

Results: We compared 9653 cases to 1,72,194 controls in maternal and 12,521 cases to 2,74,434 controls in paternal analyses, respectively. We found a 38% increased risk of cancer associated with maternal occupational exposure to arsenic (OR 1.38 [95% CI 1.06, 1.82]), likely driven by higher risks for lymphoma (OR 1.52 [0.73, 3.15]), central nervous system (CNS) (OR 1.49 [0.88, 2.54]) and other solid malignancies (OR 1.74 [1.14, 2.65]). There were also indications of higher risks of lymphoma in children of mothers exposed to nickel and iron, and of CNS tumours due to chromium exposure. No associations were observed from paternal occupational exposure to any of the metals.

Conclusions: We found evidence of increased risks of cancer in children of mothers but not fathers occupationally exposed to arsenic and potentially other metals.


            

            

                        
            
            
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