March 2024 additions to NERDB

March 2024 additions to NERDB

NERDB is the New and emerging risks database. This bibliographic database is an initiative of Nicole Palmen and Annet Lenderink with the support of Modernet and is currently powered by Airtable.

More information on this database is on the NERDB page

We will publish regular updates on new disease-exposure combinations we added to the database on the website. Currently, we have 412 entries. Ordered by the year in which the abstract is published

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New entries:

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Warshaw EM, Han J, Kullberg SA, DeKoven JG, Adler BL, Silverberg JI, Houle MC, Pratt MD, Belsito DV, Yu J, Botto NC, Reeder MJ, Taylor JS, Atwater AR, Dunnick CA, DeLeo VA, Mowad CM. Patch Testing to Chlorhexidine Digluconate, 1% Aqueous: North American Contact Dermatitis Group Experience, 2015-2020. Dermatitis. 2023 Nov-Dec;34(6):501-508. doi: 10.1089/derm.2023.0077. Epub 2023 Jun 6. PMID: 37279017.

Background: Chlorhexidine is an antiseptic that may cause allergic contact dermatitis. 

Objectives: To describe the epidemiology of chlorhexidine allergy and characterize positive patch test reactions. 

Methods: This retrospective study analyzed patients patch tested to chlorhexidine digluconate 1% aqueous by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group, 2015-2020. 

Results: Of 14,731 patients tested to chlorhexidine digluconate, 107 (0.7%) had an allergic reaction; of these, 56 (52.3%) reactions were currently clinically relevant. Most (59%) reactions were mild (+), followed by strong (++, 18.7%) and very strong (+++, 6.5%). Common primary dermatitis anatomic sites in chlorhexidine-positive patients were hands (26.4%), face (24.5%), and scattered/generalized distribution (17.9%). Compared with negative patients, chlorhexidine-positive patients were significantly more likely to have dermatitis involving the trunk (11.3% vs 5.1%; P = 0.0036). The most commonly identified source category was skin/health care products (n = 41, 38.3%). Only 11 (10.3%) chlorhexidine reactions were occupationally related; of these, 81.8% were in health care workers. 

Conclusions: Chlorhexidine digluconate allergy is uncommon, but often clinically relevant. Involvement of the hands, face, and scattered generalized patterns was frequent. Occupationally related reactions were found predominantly in health care workers.

Elbaek Pedersen J, Hansen J. Risk of breast cancer in daughters of agricultural workers in Denmark. Environ Res. 2024 Jan 1;240(Pt 1):117374. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2023.117374. Epub 2023 Oct 20. PMID: 37866542.

Objectives: Agricultural workers face unique occupational hazards such as pesticide exposure, which has been associated with breast cancer. However, research considering the association between parental agricultural work and breast cancer in female offspring is lacking. Therefore, the aim of the present nested case-control study was to explore this association.

Methods: The Danish Cancer Registry was utilized to identify women diagnosed with primary breast cancer. A total of 5587 cases were included in the study, and for each case, 20 cancer-free female controls were selected, matched on year of birth. It was a requisition that both cases and controls were born in Denmark and that either maternal or paternal employment history was available.

Results: Adverse associations were consistently noted for different time windows of maternal employment in “Horticulture” and breast cancer. Inverse associations were observed for paternal employment in most of the examined agricultural industries, although a small increased risk was indicated for perinatal employment in “Horticulture”. Furthermore, maternal preconceptional employment in “Horticulture” was observed to increase the risk of ER positive tumors (odds ratio [OR] = 1.79, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13-2.85, whereas parental perinatal employment was linked to an elevated risk of ER negative tumors (maternal employment: OR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.18-5.21; paternal employment: OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 0.70-3.77).

Conclusions: The present study indicates that maternal horticultural employment in different potential susceptible time windows may elevate the risk of breast cancer subtypes in daughters. These findings need to be reproduced in future prospective cohort studies, including information on e.g., pesticide exposure within agricultural job categories and lifestyle factors.

Alp A, Ersoy M, Meteoğlu İ, Kahraman Çetin N, Akdam H, Yeniçerioğlu Y. Occupational Silica Exposure as a Potential Risk for Microscopic Polyangiitis. Wilderness Environ Med. 2023 Dec;34(4):543-548. doi: 10.1016/j.wem.2023.06.012. Epub 2023 Aug 19. PMID: 37604751.

Microscopic polyangiitis is an important and common component of cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides that can lead to serious morbidity and even death. A clear causative aetiology has not been identified.

Although silica is well known to produce lung damage, the negative renal effects of silica exposure should not be overlooked. We present a case of renal dysfunction associated with silica exposure, its diagnosis by renal biopsy, and the treatment method used. Environmental or occupational silica exposure can cause microscopic polyangiitis. Working in occupations with increased risk of silica exposure may result in serious medical problems.

Parks CG, Leyzarovich D, Love SA, Long S, Hofmann JN, Beane Freeman LE, Sandler DP. High pesticide exposures events, pesticide poisoning, and shingles: A medicare-linked study of pesticide applicators in the agricultural health study. Environ Int. 2023 Nov;181:108251. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2023.108251. Epub 2023 Oct 7. PMID: 37862860; PMCID: PMC10836588.

Objectives: Self-reported shingles was associated with history of high pesticide exposure events (HPEE) in licensed pesticide applicators aged >60 years in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS). In the current study, using AHS-linked Medicare claims data, we examined incident shingles in relation to pesticide-related illness and pesticide poisoning, as well as HPEE.

Methods: We studied 22,753 licensed private pesticide applicators (97% white males, enrolled in the AHS 1993-97), aged ≥66 years with >12 consecutive months of Medicare fee-for-service hospital and outpatient coverage between 1999 and 2016. Incident shingles was identified based on having ≥1 shingles claim(s) after 12 months without claims.

At AHS enrollment, participants were asked if they ever sought medical care or were hospitalized for pesticide-related illness, and a supplemental questionnaire (completed by 51%) asked about HPEE and poisoning. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for age, sex, race, state, and education.

Results: Over 192,053 person-years (PY), 2396 applicators were diagnosed with shingles (10.5%; age-standardized rate, 13.6 cases per 1,000PY), with higher rates among those reporting hospitalization for pesticide-related illness, pesticide poisoning, and HPEE (23.2, 22.5, and 16.6 per 1,000PY, respectively). In adjusted models, shingles was associated with hospitalization for pesticide-related illness (HR 1.69; 1.18, 2.39), poisoning (1.49; 1.08, 1.46), and HPEE (1.23; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.46), especially HPEE plus medical care/poisoning (1.78; 1.30, 2.43).

Conclusion: These novel findings suggest that acute, high-level, and clinically impactful pesticide exposures may increase risk of shingles in subsequent years to decades following exposure.



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