October 2021 additions to NERDB

October 2021 additions to NERDB

NERDB is the New and emerging risks database. This bibliographic database is an initiative of Nicole Palmen and Annet Lenderink with the support of Modernet and is currently powered by Airtable.

More information on this database on the NERDB page

On the website, we will publish regular updates on new disease-exposure combinations we added to the database. Currently, we have 316 entries. Ordered by year in which the abstract is published

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Last new entries:

Lead in printing
Photo by 4motions Werbeagentur on Unsplash

X.-J. Chen, X. Wang, S.-J. Meng, L.-J. Zhang, L.Wu, F.-Y. Cao, Y.-S. Zhang
Analysis of neurotransmitters associated with neuropsychiatric status in workers following lead exposure Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021 Vol. 25 – N. 2 Pages: 880-889 DOI: 10.26355/eurrev_202101_24656

The objective of the authors is to explore the correlation between neuropsychiatric status and blood neurotransmitter in lead workers, and to provide theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of lead workers.

The study applied a cross-sectional survey, 74 occupational lead-exposed workers in a battery factory in a city of Hebei province were selected as the lead-exposed group, and 62 workers (non-lead workers) were selected as the control group. The occupational health symptoms questionnaire and health examination and POMS (Profile of Mood State, POMS) emotional test questionnaire were applied to investigate the nearly emotional status of the studied objects, ICP-MS was used to determine the blood lead level of all subjects, HPLC (High-performance liquid chromatography, HPLC) was applied to determine the concentration of neurotransmitter in peripheral blood of all studied subjects, and all results were applied the Pearson’s correlation analysis.

The blood lead concentration of the lead workers group (163.23±40.77 ug/L) was significantly higher than that in the control group (43.62±14.50 ug/L), and the difference was statistically significant.

From the analysis of the neuropsychiatric status, the neurological symptoms in the lead workers group were higher than that in the control group, among which the symptoms of sleep disturbance, dizziness, fatigue, numbness of limbs, and dampness and coldness of limbs were more obvious. Among the symptoms of the digestive system, the incidence of abdominal pain, abdominal distension, constipation, nausea, and vomiting were higher.

  • According to the POMS emotion questionnaire, the scores of 5 negative emotions and 1 positive emotion in the lead exposure group were higher than that in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant.
  • Related to the control group, the concentration of neurotransmitters such as DA, 5-HT, GABA, Gly, Trp and Glu were statistically decreased, p<0.001. There was a negative correlation between neurotransmitters in peripheral blood and blood lead levels in lead workers, among which 5-HT had the greatest correlation with lead levels (r=-0.569, p<0.001).
  • 5-HT and Trp were significantly correlated with tension-anxiety (T), depression-depression (D), anger-hostility (A), Vigor-hyperactivity (V), fatigue-inertia (F), and confusion-confusion (C).
  • 5-HT, Trp, and GABA were significantly correlated with the survey symptoms, among which, sleep disorder, constipation, and fatigue had the most significant positive correlation with 5-HT or Trp, r-value was respectively 0.373, 0.233, and 0.563.

The authors conclude that lead exposure not only causes the alteration of neuropsychiatric behavior of lead-workers but also changes gastrointestinal symptoms. Serotonin may be involved as the main neurotransmitter synthesized in the intestine, and the synthesis and metabolism may be regulated by intestinal flora.

Shearer JJ, Sandler DP, Andreotti G, Murata K, Shrestha S, Parks CG, Liu D, Alavanja MC, Landgren O, Beane Freeman LE, Hofmann JN. Pesticide use and kidney function among farmers in the Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect in Agriculture study. Environ Res. 2021 Aug;199:111276. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.111276. Epub 2021 May 11. PMID: 33989625; PMCID: PMC8489787.

Pesticides have been reported to be associated with malignant and non-malignant kidney disease. Few studies have examined the relationship between individual pesticides and kidney dysfunction. This study evaluated the associations of pesticide use with measured kidney function among male pesticide applicators in the Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect in Agriculture (BEEA) study, a subcohort in the Agricultural Health Study.

Serum creatinine was measured in 1545 BEEA participants and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated with the chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. Using reported information on lifetime use of 41 pesticides, multivariable linear and logistic regression was used to examine associations with eGFR modeled continuously and with CKD (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2), respectively. Models were adjusted for possible confounding factors related to kidney function and correlated pesticides.

Lower eGFR was observed among pesticide applicators who ever used the herbicides pendimethalin (-3.7%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.8%, -1.5%), atrazine (-3.7%, 95% CI: 6.9%, -0.4%), and dicamba (-2.8%, 95% CI: 5.3%, -0.2%) compared with never users of each pesticide.

Ever use of pendimethalin (odds ratio (OR)=1.6, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.2) and atrazine (OR=1.8, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.0) was also associated with elevated odds of CKD, with an exposure-response association between intensity-weighted lifetime days of pendimethalin use and CKD among active farmers (N=1302; ptrend=0.04).

Atrazine use within the last year was associated with lower eGFR and elevated odds of CKD when compared with never users, and we observed exposure-response associations with intensity-weighted lifetime days among recent users. Use of several other pesticides was associated with higher eGFR.

These results suggest that two widely used herbicides, pendimethalin and atrazine, may be associated with altered kidney function among pesticide applicators. Our findings for these herbicides are consistent with observed associations with end-stage renal disease in the Agricultural Health Study.

Santiago-Colón A, Rocheleau CM, Chen IC, Sanderson W, Waters MA, Lawson CC, Langlois PH, Cragan JD, Reefhuis J; National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Association between maternal occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and rare birth defects of the face and central nervous system. Birth Defects Res. 2020 Mar;112(5):404-417. doi: 10.1002/bdr2.1643. Epub 2020 Jan 14. PMID: 31944002.

Previous studies suggested associations between maternal smoking, a source of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other chemicals, and central nervous system and face birth defects; however, no previous studies have evaluated maternal occupational PAH exposure itself.

Jobs held in the periconceptional period were retrospectively assigned for occupational PAH exposures. Associations between maternal occupational PAH exposure and selected rare defects of the face (cataracts, microphthalmia, glaucoma, microtia, and choanal atresia) and central nervous system (holoprosencephaly, hydrocephaly, cerebellar hypoplasia, and Dandy-Walker malformation) were evaluated using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a population-based case-control study in the United States. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to estimate associations between each evaluated defect and PAH exposure using multivariable logistic regression.

Food and beverage serving, as well as cooks and food preparation occupations, were among the most frequent jobs held by exposed mothers. Cataracts, microtia, microphthalmia, and holoprosencephaly were significantly associated with PAH exposure with evidence of dose-response (P-values for trend ≤.05). Hydrocephaly was associated with any PAH exposure, but not significant for trend. Sensitivity analyses that reduced possible sources of exposure misclassification tended to strengthen associations.

The authors concluded that this is the first population-based case-control study to evaluate associations between maternal occupational PAH exposures and these rare birth defects of the central nervous system and face.

Sigurdardottir V, Jacobsson L, Schiöler L, et al Occupational exposure to inorganic dust and risk of gout: a population-based study Open 2020;6:e001178. doi: 10.1136/rmdopen-2020-001178

Risk factors operating independently of hyperuricemia could be of importance in determining why only a minority of people with hyperuricemia develop gout. Exposure to inorganic dust has been linked to other inflammatory diseases and could influence the development of gout. The objective of this study is to evaluate if occupational exposure to inorganic dust increases the risk of gout.

The authors looked at individuals aged 30–65 years with a first gout diagnosis in 2006–2012 in the population-based healthcare database of the Western Swedish Healthcare Region (VEGA). Population controls matched by age and sex were included. Data on occupation was collected from the Swedish occupational register. Exposure status was assigned by means of a job-exposure matrix. Data on gout-related comorbidities was collected from VEGA. Alcohol use disorder and obesity were related both to gout and exposure to inorganic dust and were adjusted for in multivariate analyses. ORs were calculated using conditional logistic regression.

Finally, 5042 gout cases and 20 682 controls were included. Exposure to inorganic dust was associated with gout in both unadjusted (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.20) and multivariate (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.16) analyses of the whole population. In sex-stratified multivariate analyses, dust exposure was significantly associated with gout in women (adjusted OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.51), but not in men (adjusted OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.13).

The authors concluded that they describe for the first time an association between exposure to inorganic dust and gout. After adjusting for confounders, the findings were statistically significant for women but not for men.

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